Symbolic works or too much free time Těžba, rondely, hradiska Symbolická práce nebo příliš mnoho volného času Martin Oliva This paper focuses on three distinct phenomena: chert mining, rondel function and oversized fortifications. Together these can be interpreted as indications of the existence of co-operative communal work, the purpose of which cannot easily be attributed to solely economic factors.
Instead, their significance undoubtedly resided in the communal realm which often, under the guise of various religious ideas, both mobilized and exhausted a large quantity of human energy. This activity in turn contributed to the maintenance of social stability, and the level of organization dokument e30suisse anti aging in society.
Evidently such communal efforts dokument e30suisse anti aging not limited to ancient great civilizations compare for example the construction of dokument e30suisse anti aging pyramids. Accordingly, these communal acts were not restricted to societies with a high level of social organization involving structured social control, but instead emerged from the internal needs of the involved communities. Furthermore, in the context of European prehistoric societies, these acts must have been the result of voluntary participation in large scale communal works.
Krumlov Forest — landscape of extraction — rondels — hillforts — symbolic works Na příkladu tří tematických okruhů těžba rohovce, stavba rondelů, dokument e30suisse anti aging některých hradisek jsou dokument e30suisse anti aging doklady davových pracovních akcí zjevně postrádajících jakýkoli ekonomický význam. Jejich smysl tedy nepochybně spočíval ve společenské sféře, kdy často pod rouškou různých transcendentálních představ docházelo k vybití značného množství lidské energie.
To přispívalo k udržování sociální stability a daného stavu uspořádání společnosti. Ukazuje se, že takové masové akce nejsou omezeny jen na starověké říše srov. I dokument e30suisse anti aging evropských archaických společnostech musely být vykonávány v zásadě dobrovolně a s podivuhodným nadšením.
Krumlovský les — těžní krajina — rondely — hradiska — symbolická práce Chert mining in the Krumlov Forest Since the early nineties, the Anthropos Institute of the Moravian Museum in Brno has been surveying the prehistoric mining of Jurassic chert in the region of the Krumlovský les Krumlov Forest in southern Moravia.
This research follows the recent identification of this area as one of the largest mining areas in prehistoric Europe, both due to the extent of its distribution, and its excellent state of preservation. Much of the acquired data has become the subject of further research initiatives for instance: Oliva a; Oliva — Neruda — Přichystaland only some of the basic findings will be mentioned here.
This version of the text has been updated in several sections. The actual source of Jurassic chert at the mines is Miocene ottnang — eggenburg sands and weathered quaternary loams. They include also blocks of various chert breccias, výrobky lano proti stárnutí located in mining fields II and III, which are frequently brightly colored and highly suitable for flaking.
This is the reason why Krumlov Forest chert was never chosen for the manufacture of prestigious tools, as was done with silicites in other mining areas.
With the exception of prestigious tools, Krumlov Forest chert was nevertheless used for a wide range of implements, and with the exception of the two most advanced Paleolithic cultures Gravettien and Magdalenianremained the dominant choice of stone in southern Moravia. Overlooking for the moment, the presence of Krumlov Forest chert in Lower and Middle Paleolithic assemblages often only tentatively datedthe use of this source climaxed in the early phase of the Upper Paleolithic, both in terms of quantity and quality.
However, a similar peak is also observable during the Linear Ceramic culture LBK Mateiciucová ;when a large manufacturing center was located directly in the region of the source, near Nové Bránice. An even wider distribution, although indicated by a much smaller quantity of artefacts, occurred during the Stroked Ware Pottery culture StK Čižmář — Oliva During the Western Lengyel culture WLC the geographic distribution of artefacts made using Krumlov Dokument e30suisse anti aging chert was limited to the area between the region of Znojmo for example Těšetice-Kyjovice and the northern boundary of the Brno region.
A significant change occurred in the dokument e30suisse anti aging phase of this culture, when the hitherto dominant use of Krumlov Forest chert variety KL II, began to be replaced by variety KL I which is coarser and permitted the manufacture of larger blanksand which thereafter remained the dominant source. With the exception of the actual mining areas, most of the flaked industry was distributed to hillforts on the Jihlava Kramolín: Oliva ; Oliva et al.
Krumlov Forest chert was commonly used during the Early and Late Eneolithic. It is noteworthy that it was only employed for common non-prestigious artefacts.
In the Early Bronze Age, Krumlov Forest chert variety KL I and to a certain degree also the brightly colored breccias, were present only dokument e30suisse anti aging one site in significant quantities, approximately 5 km SE from the southern mining fields.
In a similar position in the terrain, but 3 km further east near Šumice, a rondel and a 57 m long posthole house were identified Stuchlík — Stuchlíková Pit number 3, situated directly in the center of the circular ditch, yielded a depot of dokument e30suisse anti aging blades with sickle sheen.
Although now broken, the largest of these blades probably represents the highest quality item ever made from Krumlov Forest breccias Oliva et al. Archeologické rozhledy LVI— Fig.
Map of Moravian sites mentioned in the article. The large quantity of Krumlov Forest chert tools at settlement near Kubšice, sharply contrast with their scarcity at other Early Bronze Age sites Oliva a.
Small amounts of chert artefacts were found in Únětice culture pits on the hillfort Cezavy near Blučina. Excavations conducted between — by M. Salaš, yielded 34 chipped stone artefacts with an overall weight of about 0. Unlike the stone tools found at the source in the Krumlov Forest, many of the tools at the hillfort were retouched. Among these, was a distinctive 86 mm long knife, made from Krumlov Forest chert and with a sharply retouched cutting edge.
It was found alongside the cut and burnt bones of 11 children and 1 adult in pit number 5 Salaš a. The slightly serrated edge extends along the entire length of the knife, and shows signs of polish.
Chorvatsko srpen 2010
Within the region of Brno, at Brno-Černá Pole, approximately 40 chert artefacts are known from settlements of the Únětice culture and the Middle Danube Tumulus culture. However the direct import of chert from the source region near the Krumlov Forest cannot be confirmed. This material was also absent within the early Únětice culture toolkit at Brno-Slatina, acquired by M.
Salaš59, dokument e30suisse anti aging Oliva a. Of vital significance dokument e30suisse anti aging understanding the distribution of Krumlov Forest chert is a series of 7 sickle blades with serrated edges, from a late Únětice culture pit at the elevated settlement Zelená Ho- OLIVA: Flint mining, rondels, hillforts Krumlov Forest chert, nor any other Moravian chert, was employed in the manufacture of flat retouched daggers dated mainly to the Proto-Únětice culturewhich were instead made from northern flint Šebela The distribution of Krumlov Forest chert during the Urnfield culture was insignificant, even when considering a wider area.
2004_3 - Archeologický ústav AV ČR
Nevertheless, it was the only type of chert used for flaked stone tool manufacture, within the minimal stone tool assemblage at the hillfort Cezavy near Dokument e30suisse anti aging. The stone tool assemblage may have been poor due to the unique ritual character of the site.
Common settlement features were absent, replaced instead with shallow pits containing unusual fill in the form of burnt grain, ceramics and stone Salaš dokument e30suisse anti aging, Two such pits 48 and 50 yielded 3 flaked stone tools. Therefore the majority of material was found in surface concentrations 1, 2 and 4, alongside Velatice-type ceramics, animal and human remains, as well as coarse stone Salaš b. Not surprisingly, cores were not identified.
Instead larger quantities of blades were present at the site. From the overall count of 31 artefacts, 17 were retouched or showed significant sings of use Oliva b. Judging from the significantly varying distribution and use of Krumlov Forest chert, its mining climax can be anticipated in the Neolithic. Area VI yielded cores and waste flakes in an area circa m long and 80 m wide, but the lack of identifiable features in the area, suggests whatever activities took place there did not involve digging into the earth.
The sunny southern slope was thought to have served as a large workshop for processing chert mined from the opposite incline, which is dotted with numerous semi-bowl dokument e30suisse anti aging pits fig. However, the picture shown by the test trenches in this area is very different.
The Early Eneolithic late WLC can be characterized by mining from rather narrow and very deep pits up to 8 meters sunk vertically into the slope. One of the pits 9—1, no. Skeletal remains of two women were found at a depth of 6 and 7 m fig. The latter skeleton was deposited along with a newborn child.
Radiocarbon samples taken from the skeletal remains yielded a date of ±50 years BP GrA Trench VI—8—1, which lies in the western part of názvy webových stránek proti stárnutí area VI, contained oblique shafts undercut to a depth of 5 m dokument e30suisse anti aging the steep slope.
Trench VI—9—2 yielded the same mode of extraction, overlain by a 3 m thick heap of Hallstatt dokument e30suisse anti aging. In the latter case, miocene sand had been undermined to access the granodiorite bedrock.
The lithic industry found in these oblique shafts is more numerous than the lithics found in the vertical shafts. It consists primarily of cortical flakes and unsuccessfully shaped cubic pre-cores, with very 2 Both skeletons were previously attributed to the Hallstatt culture Oliva bsince this was suggested by numerous experts based on the dating of a single sherd found at the dokument e30suisse anti aging of shaft 4, and the dating of similar shafts found nearby.
It is now clear that either the dating of the sherd was erroneous, or more likely, that it represents an intrusion from a nearby pit. Due to the pronounced concentration of shafts 8 in a trench dokument e30suisse anti aging m longtheir wide bases and identical sandy fill, excavation of the shaft in question may have dokument e30suisse anti aging included a part of a neighboring shaft.
Česko-Slovenská filmová databáze
A Natural cliff formation in the shape of a dolmen. B Subrecent quarry. Measured by P. Neruda, drawn by L. A přirozený útvar v podobě dokument e30suisse anti aging, B subrecentní lomy.
Zaměřil P. Neruda, kresba L. These areas were clearly used also as primary workshops, where the raw material was tested for workability, and roughly prepared as part of the extraction process. The upper section of the incline encompasses a subtle drop in the terrain which may indicate the remains of a mined wall. A trench sunk in the year 1—3 confirmed that this section was mined on two terraces.
The upper one yielded a 3. Chert had been extracted from quaternary sediments overlaying tertiary sands. At a depth of 2.
Charcoal and indistinct ceramic sherds were also identified at a depth of depth of cm in the same profile. The base of the parallel lower terrace was found 2. Dates from charcoals found at various depths within the fill of mined shaft VI—1—3 suggest the mines were used before the Early Bronze Age: GrN ±60 BP depth — cm ; GrN ± BP depth — cm, with ceramic sherds ; GrN ±50 BP depth — cm, cavity with flaked industry.