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All rights reserved. No part of this work may úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging reproduced, in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the author. Contents Summary of the research work This resulted in the rejection of unnecessary quirky elements in fashion as early as the s.
As far as the style was concerned, Czech fashion followed Viennese, German, French, from s also English examples and it took inspiration from contemporary aesthetic principles. National political ambitions appeared through inspiration drawn from folk costumes. Feminist efforts and sports prepared the acceptance of reformist and practical dress, in which Czech authors took an active part.
The peak periods in the development of Úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging fashion were the s and the s when a number of top-quality fashion houses were established and fashion as well as social magazines with original fashion designs, photographs, and journalism were published. They produced a specific Czech fashion, referring to the French inspirations but preferring an English style, which was artistically perfect, practical, úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging, and democratic.
After the fashion styles were created under central control of the communist regime. A detailed summary Description of the main research findings for the entire period of the project The period between andin which we follow the development of garments in the social context, brought a revolutionary development of feminine individuality.
The position of woman in society and her entire personality were principally changed. This period was remarkable primarily for the development of female education - starting with the establishment of the Municipal High School for Girls in a whole network of high schools was created to educate girls for their future independent existence - industrial, pedagogical, or business schools.
At the same time various associations and clubs were founded, such as Vesna in Brno or Olomouc Pöttingeum, a combination of a high school for girls and a finishing school.
The first woman Doctor of Philosophy graduated from Prague Charles University inthe first woman physician in The American Club of Czech Ladies, founded in by Vojtěch Náprstek, was a significant contribution to the formulation of emancipation efforts of Czech women. In various forms library, lectures, trips, teaching foreign languages, visiting libraries, museums, and factories and workshops it was focused primarily on educational activity, the support of clubs and on charity úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging at children, working women and in wartime the injured.
The club was appreciated by contemporaries úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging its immense impact on the upbringing, education and growing self-assurance of the female part of Czech society. The efforts to allow an independent existence for women increased. After the first profession in which middle class women could apply their education was teaching, followed by post office services, banking, insurance and business.
In the first decade of the 20th century political requirements were formulated - efforts to provide voting rights to women. They resulted in the election of A. Viková-Kunětická to the Czech Parliament in The introduction of birth control resulted in úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging families. At the jak na vrásky kolem očí 2 Summary of the research work time, opinions on sex started to change - its role in the development of personality was stressed mainly by the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud.
I brought a significant shift in the position of women. Women replaced men in a number of professions and proved both their intellectual and organizational abilities in all areas of activity. During the 1st Czechoslovak Republic, the emancipation of women progressed.
Their equal rights were guaranteed by the Constitution; in the first years of the Republic women acquired the right to vote and the right to be voted, all high schools, universities and colleges were open for them, post high-school studies and specialized courses were organized for them.
Women achieved varied employment, acquired high scientific degrees and positions in state administration. The requirement of celibacy for women in the state services was abolished, and it became easier to get divorced. Even in motor sports, which became widespread, women were trying to achieve extraordinary results, often for publicity reasons. Women started to participate in championships and practice sports so far reserved for men, such as piloting airplanes, motorbike racing, etc.
In line with emancipation and sport the úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging of feminine beauty changed in favor of a young sportswoman, slim and suntanned, with a short haircut. The relationship between men and women changed, they drew closer from both social and sexual point of view. II and the situation following the Communist coup in put Czech women on the borderline of emancipation. The war summoned childless women to hard labor, the ration system was applied to food and consumer goods.
After even mothers were forced to find employment for financial reasons. Emancipation began turning against women. The revolutionary development of the feminine personality was reflected in feminine garments, the creation of which is affected by a number of factors. The first of them, the esthetic principle, determines the basic visual form of a garment of a given epoch, which is further affected by other influences such as the function of the garment, the tendency to use practical and purposeful garments, prevalent political ideas in the region, etc.
The basic esthetic principle of the 2nd half of the 19th century is historicism in its quickly changing stylistic modifications. Fashion, inspired by the garments of the 2nd Rococo, was replaced by dresses richly padded with underskirts and a bustle, reminiscent of the Renaissance style and later, of Baroque style. The similarity is manifested in the silhouette, the material used and decorative details.
The relation was pointed out even in úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging fashion magazines where there are references to the styles of Valois, Louis XIII.
The historicist attitude was also manifested in the further development of fashion, including verbal proclamations, e. Along with this official fashion úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging, the Reform movement started to gain ground in the 2nd half of the 19th century.
Attention was focused on health problems, caused by fashionable but harmful clothes. The reform originated in the U. Úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging new reform clothes which were of shirt-type, not cut through, started to appear in the fashion magazines. They were not only healthier, but they were also viewed from an artistic point of view.
In Bohemia, the reform garments were not unanimously accepted, as fashion reviews expressed themselves very critically about them; nevertheless, there are three pieces of reform clothes in the collections of the Museum of Decorative Arts. Similar garments had been appearing since the beginning of the century in the pictures of Czech Art Nouveau painters as one part of their artistic style, an expression of the symbolist ideas of the artists.
Pictures of suits appeared in the fashion magazines in Prague aroundand they úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging captured in the photographs made at horse-races in Chuchle in It was a practical ensemble consisting of skirt, jacket and blouse, designed for traveling, but also often worn to work. In this basic form, only a little modified according to the governing fashion, it was maintained for the whole period being described and it became a symbol of the emancipation of women.
Still, in the suit was elected as the most favorite type of clothes in a survey by the magazine Eva. The ensemble of a skirt úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging a blouse was another new type of clothes - it was very democratic, because it was fashionable but not very costly. Contemporaries were aware of their importance, which is apparent from the review in Bazar magazine translated from the German issue which considers sports clothes to be an early development of modern clothes.
[PDF] Women`s Dress as an Expression of Social Development in - Free Download PDF
Another development step of the divided skirt took place in when they were designed as a fashionable nejlepších tajemství proti stárnutí suit first in Paris, then in Vienna and Prague. The reaction, however, was nowhere very friendly - it created everywhere a sensation and was rejected.
The tendency to wear practical clothes was manifested during W. I when both underwear and outwear úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging simplified and skirts were shorter, stopping above the ankles. These types of clothes, as is apparent from their names, were often of English origin. The efforts to interconnect imagination with technical progress in clothes were simultaneously manifested by the Russian supremacists and productivists, Italian futurists, German Bauhaus domácí zařízení proti stárnutí the English group Omega.
All of them offered an alternative to the dictate of Parisian fashion and liberation from its modifications determined by seasons, time of day and purpose of the clothes. On the contrary, clothes were to be unique for both men and women and it was to be designed mostly for work and technical progress, which was to demonstrate by its form, e. The avant-garde designs were mostly in the form of overalls and by their essence they did not create bigger clothing conceptions.
The motif of the protest is slightly shifted from the technical to the ethical point of view and the emancipation of women - the main reason for this, it was stated, was the fact that it was below the dignity úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging modern, educated and independent women to wear decorative clothes.
The clothes were appropriate for various types of women, for different times of the day, different purposes and social environments for which they were designed, but together with avant-garde clothes they renounced fashionable modifications and inclined to uniformity.
The designer permitted variability in material and cut, and only establishes a basic model. The connection with a political situation is one of the most important aspects of fashion. It is apparent in the course of the entire period being described, but in a time of heightened national consciousness clothes became one of the symbols of Czech nationality Czech in a national, not territorial, sense.
This is not a specifically Czech matter - this is true of úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging in its general sense and it can be continuously seen in all European history.
Women`s Dress as an Expression of Social Development in
The events ofwhich were a highpoint of efforts for Czech national and political consciousness, were the first such wave. The creation of a national costume became a concern for the entire nation. The form of dress was especially sought after at an ideological level - it was based on Czech urban dress from the time before the Czech Kingdom lost its independence in the 17th century. White and red colors were later complemented with light blue.
Brandenbourg fastenings, a special type of braided embroidery, were considered to be typically Slavic features, but in fact, they are of Oriental origin. They were accepted not only značky proti stárnutí nemovitostí Slavonic nations in Central Europe, but also by Hungarians. The wearing of these national costumes was stressed after the defeat of the Revolution.
All top parts of the garments were provided with or adorned by Brandenbourg fastening, which was considered to be the most important item of patriotic clothes. However, at that time this kind of fashion was similar all over Europe, although it is known under different names.
Quite often, these names are connected with nationalist movements, e. It is apparent from contemporary photographs that clothes of the type similar to the designs from Lada were really worn.
In the following decades the in national patriotic clothes was not weakened. Interest culminated in the Ethnographic exhibition inwhich became a manifestation of the Czech nation, its national identity and ambitions, but not in such a measure that it could influence the governing line of fashion in a more significant manner.
It was a dress based on simple cuts of traditional folk costume with decorations derived from traditional folk art. This movement culminated between and when Czech women turned their attention toward original national folk costumes or their copies. They wore them on special occasions, including the foundation of the independent Czechoslovak state in The Sochor company, in cooperation with the Melantrich Art Studio, responded to the patriotic mood of Czech women by creating a series of cotton fabrics for summer dresses with cuts inspired by folk ornamentation in the national colors red, white and blue.
The cuts of the dresses made of these fabrics were similar to German dirndls, which at that time were a very popular international fashion, but in Bohemia they were considered to be an expression of patriotic thinking. Paradoxically, all of Europe accepted as fashionable the German national costume while rejecting the German ideology of Fascism.
In Brno in the Czech Fashion Association was founded to seek stylish contemporary clothes with elements of the national costume. The Communist putsch in essentially changed the entire image of women.
The female shockworker úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging the ideal. This fact influenced the new fashion style as much as the gap resulting from the complete rejection of Western culture, including fashion which was considered to be a bourgeois relic.
Czech fashion was formed under political supervision and it was focused on the production of working clothes and simple, practical clothes for working women. Czech fashion was supposed to find its sources of inspiration in the tradition of folk dress.
It would be a simplification to see the connection with politics only in the efforts to create a national costume, which was apparent, e. During the whole period being described clothes were mostly tailor made.
The most luxurious among fashion houses were the Prague companies Rosenbaum and Podolská, organized after French examples, where the style was determined by the owners fulfilling the function of couturier who employed designers stylistscutters, sales-clerks - vandeuses, tailors, dressmakers and also models.
These and other companies were permanently in direct contact with Paris where they used to go for seasonal and mid-seasonal fashion shows. Each salon had its úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging circle of clients - Podolská sewed for the Czech upper class from the whole country, Rosenbaum primarily for clients belonging to a German, Jewish and also Czech upper class clientele.
Rosenbaum, moreover, had clients from all Central Europe. Besides these top companies there was a number of other fashion houses both in Prague and outside Prague, the names of which are documented in the directories and on several dresses produced there which have been preserved.
Another form of clothes production was a small series production of ready-made clothes in the companies which, besides tailor-made clothes, also produced a small series of ready-made clothes for stock. This method of production was quite a favorite since the last decades of the 19th úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging and was used during the entire period being described. The last method was a large production of ready-made clothes, which in the course of the period being described kept developing and being perfected, mainly in the areas around Prostějov and Brno, and also in Prague.
Much more than documents.
The history and competence of the Czech fashion houses is covered in the enclosed material from several types of 6 Summary of the research work enterprise which is the result of archival research, study of contemporary magazines and in depth interview with surviving eyewitnesses. The importance of field research, facilitated by this grant, was apparent - otherwise it would not be úmluva coiffure 20suisse anti aging to compare the situation in Prague and outside Prague.
The comparison showed that high quality clothes were by no means produced only in Prague. Clothes of excellent craftsmanship on a high artistic level were also produced in Brno, Olomouc, Zlín, Chrudim, Plzeň, Pardubice, Hradec Králové, Mladá Boleslav and probably in Liberec where of course, because of the post-war confusion connected with the transfer of Germans, not much material was preserved.